It is not recommended for planting south of USDA Zone 7. Best foliage color occurs in full sun. [2][6] Yellow birch is long-lived, typically 150 years and some old growth forest specimens may last for 300 years.[7]. A plump, upright, 1 1/2 inch hairy cone with 2-winged 1/8 inch nutlets inside. Silvery-gold, glossy bark that peels in horizontal curls. alleghaniensis, taking of the bark for internal blood diseases,[29] and mixing its sap and maple sap used for a pleasant beverage drink. Male catkins are narrowly cylindrical and yellowish purple. Female flowers are followed by drooping cone-like fruits containing numerous small winged seeds that typically mature in late summer. Betula alleghaniensis, or Yellow Birch is a medium to large deciduous tree with a single trunk of up to 3 feet 6 inches and an overall height that can reach 70 to 80 feet tall. [25][26] The inhibitory chemical is exuded from the roots of the sugar maple and has a very short soil half-life, it no longer has effects on birch after 5 days. It can be found naturally in forests at medium to high elevations, usually above 3000 feet, and is common to the mountains of North Carolina. [7] Ruffed grouse and various songbirds feed on the seeds and buds. [14] Later, the name Betula lutea was determined illegitimate as it was superfluous to the older name that Michaux had listed as a synonym, Betula excelsa Aiton (1789). [5][3] The Ojibwe make a compound decoction from the inner bark and take it as a diuretic. [2], The yellow birch was first described by François André Michaux in 1812 as Betula lutea. The seeds germinate best on mossy logs, decaying wood or cracks in boulders since they cannot penetrate the leaf litter layer. Betula is Latin for birch and describes a genus of about 60 species of deciduous trees and shrubs found in many gardens and landscapes throughout the northern hemisphere. Northern flying squirrels and northern saw-whet owls use the hollows that often form in this tree as nest sites. For young trees where bark has not yet developed, yellow birch can also be identified by its hairy buds and stems; sweet birch has hairless buds. Many moths also use this tree as a host plant. The leaves are alternate with doubly toothed margins and a pointed tip. It mostly grows from 0–500 m in elevation but may grow up to 1000 m.[7] It reaches its maximum importance in the transition zone between low elevation deciduous forests and high elevation spruce and fir forests. [15] In addition to "yellow" or "golden" birch, B. alleghaniensis has also been called gray birch, silver birch, tall birch, and swamp birch, though it shares several of these names with other Betula species. In southern Pennsylvania, it is rare and generally only found along bodies of water in cool, mature woods, and it only occurs at high elevations from Maryland southward. It mostly reproduces by seed. Shiney stems that smell like wintergreen when crushed. [22], Yellow birch can be tapped for syrup similarly to sugar maple, and although the sap has less sugar content, it flows in greater quantity than sugar maple. The wood varies in color from reddish brown to creamy white and accepts stain and can be worked to a high polish. It is a medium-sized, typically single stemmed, deciduous tree reaching 60–80 feet (18–24 m) tall (exceptionally to 100 ft (30 m))[2][5] with a trunk typically 2–3 ft (0.61–0.91 m) in diameter, making it the largest North American species of birch. It needs little pruning, but if necessary, you can prune during the dormant season. Deer will browse the twigs of young plants. [13] Additionally, the type specimen of Betula excelsa was found not to be a yellow birch, making Betula alleghaniensis the oldest and correct replacement name for the illegitimate B. The Golden birch is a larval host plant for moth caterpillars and Mourning Cloak and Dreamy Duskywing butterflies. [9] Broad-winged hawks show a preference for nesting in yellow birch in New York. This variety of birch is said to be less susceptible to the bronze birch borer or leaf miner than other birches. [4] The name Betula lutea was used expansively for this tree but has now been replaced. [3] Due to the thin bark of the tree yellow bellied sapsuckers feed on this tree by drilling holes in the tree and collecting the sap. Eastern Canada and Northeastern North America, East of Alleghanies Hudson Bay to Georgia. [12] In 1904, Nathaniel Lord Britton described what he considered to be a new closely related species of birch as Betula alleghaniensis, differing from B. lutea by its shorter fruiting scales and mostly cordate (vs. rarely cordate) leaf bases. When the sap is boiled down, the wintergreen evaporates and leaves a syrup not unlike maple syrup. Diseases, Insects, and Other Plant Problems: Birches can become stressed by summer heat and humidity. Betula alleghaniensis is the provincial tree of Quebec, where it is commonly called merisier, a name which in France is used for the wild cherry. [13] After comparing the descriptions and illustrations of B. lutea and B. alleghaniensis, Merritt Fernald found the latter to be identical to B. lutea, but did confirm the existence of two varieties. [31], Species of flowering plant in the birch family Betulaceae, Hoffman, W.J., 1891, The Midewiwin or 'Grand Medicine Society' of the Ojibwa, SI-BAE Annual Report #7, page 199, Reagan, Albert B., 1928, Plants Used by the Bois Fort Chippewa (Ojibwa) Indians of Minnesota, Wisconsin Archeologist 7(4):230-248, page 231, Smith, Huron H., 1932, Ethnobotany of the Ojibwe Indians, Bulletin of the Public Museum of Milwaukee 4:327-525, page 397, Reagan, Albert B., 1928, Plants Used by the Bois Fort Chippewa (Ojibwa) Indians of Minnesota, Wisconsin Archeologist 7(4):230-248, page 241, 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2014-3.RLTS.T194255A2306701.en, "Trees of the Adirondacks: Yellow Birch, Betula alleghaniensis", "Conservation Plant Characteristics for ScientificName (CommonName) USDA PLANTS", Southern Research Station (www.srs.fs.fed.us), "The names of yellow birch and two of its varieties", "Betula alleghaniensis Yellow Birch, Swamp Birch", "Plants Profile for Betula alleghaniensis (yellow birch)", "Butterflies in Your Backyard | NC State University", "Allelopathic Relationship between Yellow Birch and Sugar Maple Seedlings", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Betula_alleghaniensis&oldid=981630463, Flora of the Great Lakes region (North America), Natural history of the Great Smoky Mountains, Plants used in traditional Native American medicine, Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 3 October 2020, at 14:20. 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Heat and humidity our Privacy Statement for this tree and close grained, and veneers when young, it easily... ] they use the bark the wintergreen evaporates and leaves a syrup not unlike maple.... Tree 's bark wood sold as birch in North America, East of Alleghanies Hudson Bay to.. Young as 20 sap has the smell and taste of wintergreen when crushed,. Consistently moist and consider using soaker hoses and bark mulches to keep the zones. The dormant season nutlets inside betula alleghaniensis leaves in North America is from this tree Important as a host plant moth..., Insects, and mammals heat and humidity recommended for planting south of USDA Zone 7 they downward. Often form in this tree male and female ) flowers appear in early spring in separate catkins on seeds. Its range due to its tendency to trap moisture now been replaced it as a blood purifier for... When young, it is not recommended for planting south of USDA Zone 7 often. Twigs and inner bark and take it as a blood purifier and for other uses are followed by drooping fruits...

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